There are many ways to learn the properties of the oil paint colors on your palette and they all have to do with actually painting.
What are the properties of an oil paint color? Here are my top 6 questions that I ask myself when painting with a color:
1. Is the color warm or cool? (in relation to the other colors on my palette)
2. Is the color inherently (straight out of the tube) transparent or opaque?
3. If it is opaque, how much medium do I have to use to make it appear transparent?
4. If it is transparent, how thick does it need to be to appear opaque?
5. What is the tinting strength of the color? (Does it easily overpower other colors when mixed together?)
6. What happens when you mix it with white?
Here is an example of a technique board and a close-up detail from that board--maybe not so beautiful, but necessary and invaluable when learning the properties of a color!